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Kubernetes

“Kubernetes is not for application development but for platform development. Its magic is in enterprise standardization, not app portability” (Kelsey Hightower)

  1. Must know Kubernetes concepts
  2. Introduction
    1. Kubernetes Jobs Market
    2. Certified Kubernetes Offerings
    3. The State of Cloud-Native Development
    4. Kubernetes Failure Stories
    5. Kubernetes Maturity Model
    6. Cloud Native Learn by doing platforms
    7. Kubernetes Installation Methods
    8. Kubernetes Knowledge Hubs
      1. Kubernetes Podcasts
      2. Kubernetes Blogs
      3. Spanish Kubernetes Blogs
  3. Kubernetes Open Source Container Orchestation
    1. kubeconfig
    2. Kubernetes Manifests
    3. Kubernetes Quality of Service QOS
    4. Docker and Kubernetes
      1. Kubernetes vs Docker
      2. Kubernetes vs Docker Swarm
    5. Kubernetes Admission Controllers
    6. Kubernetes Mutating Webhooks
    7. Kubernetes Cloud Controller Manager
    8. Kubernetes Resources
      1. Kubernetes Pods
      2. Kubernetes ConfigMaps
      3. Kubernetes Secrets
      4. Kubernetes Volumes
      5. Kubernetes Namespaces and Multi Tenancy. Self Service Namespaces
        1. Kiosk Multi-Tenancy Extension for Kubernetes
        2. Creating Users
      6. Kubernetes Labels and Selectors
      7. Kubernetes Taints and Tolerations
      8. Kubernetes Deployment, Rollling Updates and Rollbacks
      9. Kubernetes StatefulSet
      10. Kubernetes DaemonSets
      11. Kubernetes Jobs and Cron Jobs
      12. Kubernetes Services
    9. Kubernetes Deployment Strategies
    10. Kubernetes API
      1. Multi-Cluster Services API
    11. Kubernetes Health Checks/Probes. Startup, Liveness, Readiness
    12. Kubernetes Limits and Requests
    13. Kubernetes Scheduler. Kube Scheduler
    14. Kubernetes etcd
    15. Kubernetes Sidecars
    16. Kubernetes Annotations
    17. Kubernetes Best Practices and Tips
    18. Disruptions
    19. Cost Estimation Strategies
      1. kubecost
    20. Kubernetes Resource and Capacity Management. Capacity Planning
    21. Architecting Kubernetes clusters. Node Size. Multi Clusters and Hybrid Cloud
      1. Wide Cluster instead of Multi-Cluster
  4. Client Libraries for Kubernetes
  5. Helm Kubernetes Tool
  6. Templating YAML in Kubernetes with real code. YQ YAML processor
  7. Extending Kubernetes
    1. Adding Custom Resources. Extending Kubernetes API with Kubernetes Resource Definitions. CRD vs Aggregated API
    2. Krew, a plugin manager for kubectl plugins
    3. OpenKruise/Kruise
    4. Crossplane, a Universal Control Plane API for Cloud Computing. Crossplane Workloads Definitions
  8. Kubernetes Community
    1. Community Forums
    2. Kubernetes Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
      1. Kubernetes SIG’s Repos
      2. Kubectl Plugins
  9. Enforcing Policies and governance for kubernetes workloads with Conftest
  10. Kubernetes Patterns and Antipatterns. Service Discovery
  11. Kubernetes Scheduling and Scheduling Profiles
    1. Assigning Pods to Nodes. Pod Affinity and Anti-Affinity
    2. Pod Topology Spread Constraints and PodTopologySpread Scheduling Plugin
  12. Cloud Development Kit (CDK) for Kubernetes
    1. AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK)
  13. Serverless with OpenFaas and Knative
  14. Virtual Kubernetes Clusters
  15. Multi-Cluster Federation. Hybrid Cloud Setup Tools
    1. KubeFed
    2. KubeCarrier
    3. Red Hat Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM)
    4. Istio Service Mesh
  16. Multi-Regional Architecture
  17. Kubernetes in Kubernetes
  18. Kubernetes Scripts
    1. Kubernetes and Ansible
  19. Spot instances in Kubernetes
  20. Kubernetes on Windows
  21. Kubernetes Incident Report Plan IRP
  22. Kubernetes Certifications. CKA, CKAD and CKS
  23. Books and eBooks
    1. Kubernetes Patterns eBooks
    2. Famous Kubernetes ebooks of 2019
  24. Famous Kubernetes resources of 2019
  25. Famous Kubernetes resources of 2020
  26. Kubernetes Slack Channel
  27. Bunch of images
  28. Videos
  29. Spanish Videos
  30. Tweets
  31. Tweets 2
  32. Memes

Must know Kubernetes concepts

  • Workloads: Node, Cluster, Pod, Namespace
  • Pod Controllers: Deployment, ReplicaSet, DaemonSet, StatefulSet, HPA PodDisruptionBudget, Job, CronJob
  • Configuration: ConfigMaps, Secrets
  • Networking: Ingress, Service, Network Policy

Introduction

Kubernetes Jobs Market

  • kube.careers: Kubernetes jobs market (Q2 2021) We analyzed all the 113 Kubernetes jobs posted in the past 3 months (Apr-May-Jun 2021) and extracted metrics for:
    • Kubernetes salary ranges
    • Remote vs office offers
    • Popular cloud providers
  • kube.careers: Kubernetes jobs market trends for 2021 (Q4) What’s the average salary for a Kubernetes engineer? Do you need a Kubernetes certification to apply for a job? What technologies and cloud providers are often used with Kubernetes? We analyzed 276 Kubernetes jobs from 2021 and found that:
    • If you know AWS and Python, the world is your oyster.
    • CKA is the top Kubernetes certification. But only a few employers require one.
    • Jenkins is more alive than ever.
    • Prometheus is synonymous with monitoring. No one comes close.
    • Terraform and Ansible lead IaC.
  • kube.careers: Kubernetes jobs market trends for 2022 Q2
    • What’s the average salary for a Kubernetes engineer?
    • What are the skill sets required for a Kubernetes job?
    • How much technical experience do you need in the current job market?
  • kube.careers: Kubernetes jobs market trends for 2022 Q3

Certified Kubernetes Offerings

The State of Cloud-Native Development

Kubernetes Failure Stories

Kubernetes Maturity Model

  • fairwinds.medium.com: Kubernetes Maturity Model
  • fairwinds.medium.com: An Introduction to the Kubernetes Maturity Model โ€” How to Use It
    • The Fairwinds team developed the Kubernetes Maturity Model over a year ago, and they continue to update and refine it to reflect the five stages you go through in your journey to Kubernetes maturity.
    • If the Kubernetes Maturity Model is new to you, this is a helpful introduction and guide on how to use it.
    • Before you do anything, consider what a cloud-native journey means to you and your organization. Kubernetes isnโ€™t right for everyone, so make sure you understand where to start and how to prove value by embracing Kubernetes.
    • Any maturity model is a process, and youโ€™re likely to move back and forth between phases, and some will take longer than others. Even once youโ€™ve reached phase five, youโ€™ll always be working on ongoing optimization, removing human error and effort, and improving reliability and efficiency.

Cloud Native Learn by doing platforms

Kubernetes Installation Methods

Kubernetes Knowledge Hubs

Kubernetes Podcasts

Kubernetes Blogs

Spanish Kubernetes Blogs

Kubernetes Open Source Container Orchestation

kubeconfig

Kubernetes Manifests

Kubernetes Quality of Service QOS

Docker and Kubernetes

Kubernetes vs Docker

Kubernetes vs Docker Swarm

Kubernetes Admission Controllers

Kubernetes Mutating Webhooks

  • medium.com/@pflooky: Intro to Kubernetes Mutating Webhooks (get more out of Kubernetes)
    • In its simplest terms, a MutatingWebhookConfiguration defines a webhook application to alter a Kubernetes resource when a particular action is taken on it. For example, if I wanted to add particular labels to all the pods that are created, it could be done by a mutating webhook which watches for all CREATE POD events and adds the labels to that pod before it gets deployed.
    • Why: As the development teams put larger workloads into Kubernetes, managing all of the resources becomes quite difficult as there may be different deployment patterns and life cycles. Mutating webhooks give you the ability to target changes to any Kubernetes resource regardless of their deployment mechanisms and alter them before or after any point within the life cycle.
    • Some use cases where it could be used include:
      • Metadata management: include useful metadata about team, environment or type of workload to each Kubernetes resource
      • Attaching sidecar processes: add a log listener to particular pods
      • Secret management: apply consistent secret retrieval across all resources
      • Deployment configuration: could add environment variables or configmaps on the fly to pods

Kubernetes Cloud Controller Manager

Kubernetes Resources

Kubernetes Pods

Kubernetes ConfigMaps

Kubernetes Secrets

Kubernetes Volumes

Kubernetes Namespaces and Multi Tenancy. Self Service Namespaces

Kiosk Multi-Tenancy Extension for Kubernetes
  • loft-sh/kiosk kiosk Multi-Tenancy Extension For Kubernetes - Secure Cluster Sharing & Self-Service Namespace Provisioning.
  • Kubernetes is designed as a single-tenant platform, which makes it hard for cluster admins to host multiple tenants in a single Kubernetes cluster. However, sharing a cluster has many advantages, e.g. more efficient resource utilization, less admin/configuration effort or easier sharing of cluster-internal resources among different tenants.
  • While there are hundreds of ways of setting up multi-tenant Kubernetes clusters and many Kubernetes distributions provide their own tenancy logic, there is no lightweight, pluggable and customizable solution that allows admins to easily add multi-tenancy capabilities to any standard Kubernetes cluster.
Creating Users
  • cloudhero.io Creating Users for your Kubernetes Cluster. Learn how to use x509 certificates to authenticate users in your cluster.

Kubernetes Labels and Selectors

Kubernetes Taints and Tolerations

Kubernetes Deployment, Rollling Updates and Rollbacks

Kubernetes StatefulSet

Kubernetes DaemonSets

Kubernetes Jobs and Cron Jobs

Kubernetes Services

Kubernetes Deployment Strategies

Kubernetes API

Multi-Cluster Services API

Kubernetes Health Checks/Probes. Startup, Liveness, Readiness

Kubernetes Limits and Requests

Kubernetes Scheduler. Kube Scheduler

Kubernetes etcd

Kubernetes Sidecars

Kubernetes Annotations

Kubernetes Best Practices and Tips

k8s experts be like

Disruptions

Cost Estimation Strategies

kubecost

Kubernetes Resource and Capacity Management. Capacity Planning

Architecting Kubernetes clusters. Node Size. Multi Clusters and Hybrid Cloud

Wide Cluster instead of Multi-Cluster

Client Libraries for Kubernetes

Helm Kubernetes Tool

Templating YAML in Kubernetes with real code. YQ YAML processor

Extending Kubernetes

Adding Custom Resources. Extending Kubernetes API with Kubernetes Resource Definitions. CRD vs Aggregated API

  • Custom Resources
  • itnext.io: CRD is just a table in Kubernetes
  • Use a custom resource (CRD or Aggregated API) if most of the following apply:
    • You want to use Kubernetes client libraries and CLIs to create and update the new resource.
    • You want top-level support from kubectl; for example, kubectl get my-object object-name.
    • You want to build new automation that watches for updates on the new object, and then CRUD other objects, or vice versa.
    • You want to write automation that handles updates to the object.
    • You want to use Kubernetes API conventions like .spec, .status, and .metadata.
    • You want the object to be an abstraction over a collection of controlled resources, or a summarization of other resources.
  • Kubernetes provides two ways to add custom resources to your cluster:
    • CRDs are simple and can be created without any programming.
    • API Aggregation requires programming, but allows more control over API behaviors like how data is stored and conversion between API versions.
  • Kubernetes provides these two options to meet the needs of different users, so that neither ease of use nor flexibility is compromised.
  • Aggregated APIs are subordinate API servers that sit behind the primary API server, which acts as a proxy. This arrangement is called API Aggregation (AA). To users, it simply appears that the Kubernetes API is extended.
  • CRDs allow users to create new types of resources without adding another API server. You do not need to understand API Aggregation to use CRDs.
  • Regardless of how they are installed, the new resources are referred to as Custom Resources to distinguish them from built-in Kubernetes resources (like pods).

Krew, a plugin manager for kubectl plugins

OpenKruise/Kruise

Crossplane, a Universal Control Plane API for Cloud Computing. Crossplane Workloads Definitions

Kubernetes Community

Community Forums

Kubernetes Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

Kubernetes SIG’s Repos

Kubectl Plugins

Video: Kubectl plugins. Click to expand!

Enforcing Policies and governance for kubernetes workloads with Conftest

Kubernetes Patterns and Antipatterns. Service Discovery

Top 10 Kubernetes patterns

Kubernetes Scheduling and Scheduling Profiles

Assigning Pods to Nodes. Pod Affinity and Anti-Affinity

Pod Topology Spread Constraints and PodTopologySpread Scheduling Plugin

Cloud Development Kit (CDK) for Kubernetes

  • cdk8s.io Define Kubernetes apps and components using familiar languages. cdk8s is an open-source software development framework for defining Kubernetes applications and reusable abstractions using familiar programming languages and rich object-oriented APIs. cdk8s apps synthesize into standard Kubernetes manifests which can be applied to any Kubernetes cluster.
  • github.com/awslabs/cdk8s

AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK)

  • AWS: Introducing CDK for Kubernetes
  • Traditionally, Kubernetes applications are defined with human-readable, static YAML data files which developers write and maintain. Building new applications requires writing a good amount of boilerplate config, copying code from other projects, and applying manual tweaks and customizations. As applications evolve and teams grow, these YAML files become harder to manage. Sharing best practices or making updates involves manual changes and complex migrations.
  • YAML is an excellent format for describing the desired state of your cluster, but it is does not have primitives for expressing logic and reusable abstractions. There are multiple tools in the Kubernetes ecosystem which attempt to address these gaps in various ways:
  • We realized this was exactly the same problem our customers had faced when defining their applications through CloudFormation templates, a problem solved by the AWS Cloud Development Kit (AWS CDK), and that we could apply the same design concepts from the AWS CDK to help all Kubernetes users.

Serverless with OpenFaas and Knative

Serverless

Virtual Kubernetes Clusters

Multi-Cluster Federation. Hybrid Cloud Setup Tools

KubeFed

KubeCarrier

Red Hat Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM)

  • Red Hat OLM operator-lifecycle-manager is a management framework for extending Kubernetes with Operators. OLM extends Kubernetes to provide a declarative way to install, manage, and upgrade Operators and their dependencies in a cluster.

Istio Service Mesh

Multi-Regional Architecture

Kubernetes in Kubernetes

Kubernetes Scripts

Kubernetes and Ansible

Spot instances in Kubernetes

Kubernetes on Windows

Kubernetes Incident Report Plan IRP

Kubernetes Certifications. CKA, CKAD and CKS

Books and eBooks

Kubernetes Patterns eBooks

Famous Kubernetes ebooks of 2019

Kubernetes: Up and Running

Famous Kubernetes resources of 2019

Famous Kubernetes resources of 2020

Kubernetes Slack Channel

Bunch of images

Click to expand!

Kubernetes architecture

10 most common mistakes

5 Open-source projects that make #Kubernetes even better

kubernetes arch multicloud hybrid

Kubernetes components

Container flowchart

dockerswarm vs kubernetes

simple k8s cluster meme

Kubernetes not endgame

k8s namespaces

K8s arch mindmap

Videos

Click to expand!

Spanish Videos

Click to expand!

Tweets

Click to expand!

Tweets 2

Click to expand!

Memes

Click to expand!